9. Contribute to a culture of safety and improvement (linked roles: EXP, COM, COL, ADV, SCH, PRO)

EPA9.1Identify actual and potential (“near miss”) errors in care; speak up in case of real or potential errors, and use error reporting systems if available
EPA9.2Empower team members to “stop the line” if they discover a significant safety breach
EPA9.3Admit and disclose one’s own errors, reflect on one’s contribution and develop an improvement strategy
EPA9.4Address situations in which a patient could have been the victim of a medical error
EPA9.5Understand existing safety/quality procedures, their vulnerabilities and the concept of accountability
EPA9.6Participate in evidence-based quality improvement and patient safety, using safety alerts, minimizing nosocomial infections (e.g. hand hygiene), resistance to antibiotics and unnecessary investigations and treatment 
EPA9.7Contribute to the literacy of patients and oneself regarding environmental and ecological safety
EPA9.8Assess age-specific environmental risks and propose safety measures
EPA9.9Avoid or identify errors by using safety alerts when available. Maximize therapeutic benefit and safety for patients and the population