1. Medical Expert (EXP) (linked EPAs: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9)

As Medical Experts, physicians possess a comprehensive body of knowledge and skills which they apply in medical practice. They collect and interpret information, perform problem analyses, and make appropriate clinical decisions within their area of expertise and competence. They check whether their decisions and associated actions are up to the appropriate quality standard and have the desired effects. They assess the extent to which they need supervision in their professional activities. They deliver curative and preventive care using evidence-based, ethically sound, and economically viable standards. Medical care includes both somatic and psychosocial aspects and tackles acute and chronic disorders and situations. Medical experts engage in effective oral, written, and electronic communication with patients, relatives, and other professionals in social services or healthcare. They keep themselves updated on developments in the field of medicine and acquire a critical awareness of the social and ethical issues associated with the progress of science.

The following “expert” section synthesizes the key objectives of undergraduate training, and as such overlaps with the objectives provided in the six other roles (as shown in the CanMEDS ‘flower’).

They are able to:
GO1.1describe and integrate the structures and underlying mechanisms governing the function of the human body, from molecular to organ level
GO1.2demonstrate a good knowledge of all common situations in each discipline
GO1.3perform a patient-focused consultation in the time allowed
GO1.4identify and prioritize issues to be addressed in a patient encounter, and elicit a relevant, concise and accurate personal and family history from the patient and other sources
GO1.5perform triage assessment and interventions, taking into account clinical urgency, the potential of deterioration, and available resources
GO1.6conduct an effective general or specific physical examination
GO1.7analyse and interpret data to establish a differential and a working diagnosis (clinical reasoning)
GO1.8integrate the foundations of basic medical sciences into their clinical reasoning and the selection of relevant procedures and investigations
GO1.9establish a patient-centred, shared management plan and deliver high quality cost-effective preventive and curative care, especially when dealing with a patient who is vulnerable and/or multimorbid (elderly) or who suffers from a terminal illness
GO1.10demonstrate safe prescribing
GO1.11prioritize and perform procedures in a skilful and safe manner
GO1.12obtain and document informed consent, explaining the risks, benefits and rationale for the proposed options
GO1.13advise and counsel patients on their health and lifestyle in an empathetic non-judgmental manner. Perform a motivational interview 
GO1.14set up and conduct a discussion with the family/caregivers and manage options/decisions regarding the patient’s health, condition and outcomes
GO1.15demonstrate appropriate medical data and information management 
GO1.16integrate the advancements produced by evidence-based scientific research into clinical practice
GO1.17develop a critical awareness of common stereotypes that might bias clinical activities, related to factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, culture and representations.
GO1.18identify the impact on health of sex (i.e. biological difference related to sexual determination), and gender (cultural and social differences between men and women in terms of roles and expectations). Address these issues in medical activities
GO1.19incorporate and apply the foundations of biomedical and clinical ethics in patient care; respect values such as autonomy and dignity; identify and weigh up, in situations posing ethical dilemma, the various options available and how principles and values may affect them
GO1.20recognize and disclose conflicts of interest that might compromise equitable, high quality care at individual and collective levels
GO1.21comply with the code of ethics and the recommendations of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences
GO1.22take Swiss legislation into account in the care of the patients, in particular coverage for disease, accidents, occupational disease and disability; display awareness and respect for the rights of the patient
GO1.23understand the population perspective as a core aspect of public health, and the application of basic principles of social medicine; advocate for the health and healthy environment of the local community and society as a whole
GO1.24take into account the economic, social and cultural aspects of health maintenance prevention and care at individual and community levels 
GO1.25practise self-reflection and critical thinking related to evolution of the health system; recognize and respond to the complexity, uncertainty, and ambiguity inherent in medical practice