7. Develop a management plan, discuss orders and prescriptions in common situations (linked roles: EXP, COM, COL, LEA, SCH, PRO)

EPA7.1Establish a management plan that integrates information gathered from the history, the physical examination, laboratory tests and imaging as well as the patient’s preference; incorporate the prescription of medications, physiotherapy and physical rehabilitation, dietetic and lifestyles advice, psychological support, social and environmental measures into the management plan
EPA7.2Use clinical scores and clinical decision rules/protocols to support decision (Bayesian approach) when appropriate.
EPA7.3Adopt a shared-decision making approach in establishing the management plan, take into account patients’ preferences in making orders; take into account an indication or request for complementary medicine; deal with treatment refusal; demonstrate an understanding of the patient’s and family’s current situation, beliefs and wishes, and consider any physical dependence or cognitive disorders; react appropriately when the patient lacks autonomous decision-making capacity.
EPA7.4Take into account the patient’s specific profile and situation, such as gender, age, culture, religion, beliefs and health literacy; take into account the vulnerability of specific groups such as immigrants, patients with low socioeconomic status, adolescents 
EPA7.5Ensure patient’s and family’s understanding of the indications, risks and benefits, alternatives and potential complications of treatment
EPA7.6Understand and apply the concept and basic elements of advance care planning
EPA7.7Demonstrate an insight into emotional factors that can interfere with patient-doctor communication and their management
EPA7.8Provide effective treatment (medicinal and technological) of all types of pain 
EPA7.9Prescribe antibiotics only with clear indications and awareness of the issue of antibiotic resistance 
EPA7.10Avoid unnecessary/futile diagnostic measures and treatment 
EPA7.11Determine prescription and treatment according to the patient’s condition, and adjust for weight, allergies, pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenetics (“precision medicine”), potential interactions with other medication and substances, pregnancy status or co-morbid conditions, legal/illegal psychoactive substances, potential for self-harm
EPA7.12In patients with multimorbidity, prioritize measures and medication; compose orders efficiently and effectively, whether in oral, written or electronic format
EPA7.13During follow-up, support self-management by the patient; evaluate and discuss adherence; discuss the potential impact of non-adherence if needed, especially with patients who are cognitively impaired or unable to make decisions; use motivational approaches if appropriate 
EPA7.14Ensure continuity and interprofessional collaboration in caring for chronic and multimorbid patients
EPA7.15Counsel patient and family proactively on decision-making at the end of life, taking into account the patient’s preferences and acceptable outcomes; involve chaplain if needed and/or consult with ethicist in difficult situations
EPA7.16Prescribe measures for treatment of pain, palliative and end-of-life care, taking into account any advance directives or a “do not resuscitate” request