4. Recommend and interpret diagnostic and screening tests in common situations (linked roles: EXP, COM, COL, SCH)

EPA4.1Recommend first-line, cost-effective diagnostic evaluation for a patient with an acute or chronic disorder or as part of routine health maintenance
EPA4.2Justify an informed, evidence-based rationale for ordering tests (when appropriate, based on integration of basic medical disciplines as they relate to the clinical condition); take into account cost-effectiveness of ordering 
EPA4.3Obtain informed consent: discuss with the patient and the family or proxy, and ensure that they understand the indications, risks, benefits, alternatives, and potential complications; seek an agreement/shared decision and document it in the file
EPA4.4Demonstrate awareness of differences in values and thresholds regarding sex and age in the interpretation of biological test results: use reference values
EPA4.5Interpret test results and integrate them into the differential diagnosis; understand the implications and urgency of an abnormal result and seek assistance with interpretation if needed
EPA4.6As part of a routine check-up, advise patients and order screening tests or procedures to identify asymptomatic diseases or risk factors, weighing up their risks, benefits and predictive value; apply valid epidemiological data in selecting tests and procedures
EPA4.7Provide an informed rationale for ordering imaging examinations; interpret first-line, common X-rays; integrate diagnostic imaging into the clinical workup
EPA4.8Order required tests and investigations in situations with medicolegal implications: substances in the blood, X-rays and genetic tests